This article will walk you through the steps that I took to get Proxmox running inside of an OCI instance. Because you cannot VNC directly into an instance that is booting, this will be a great way to run services that may require some sort of connection other than RDP (Windows Server) or SSH.
In my use case, I was looking to deploy a virtual PBX to a cloud environment so all of our locations did not need to rely on our on premises server. You can imagine the chaos when the phone system goes down.
In this method, we are going to be using a custom Debian image to create a boot image on OCI and create a virtual instance. Then, once that is set up we will be manually installing Proxmox.
Step 1: Download Required Files
We need to download the Debian image required first. At the time of writing Proxmox is using Debian 11 (bullseye). Lucky for us Debian provides ready-to-deploy cloud images. The image that you will need can be download directly from them here: https://cloud.debian.org/images/cloud/
The version that I used was
debian-11-genericcloud-amd64-20221205-1220.qcow2. That image can be downloaded directly here:
Step 2: Create OCI Bucket
Next we will need to start getting our image ready for OCI. Once logged into your OCI Dashboard you will need to navigate to Storage -> Buckets. If you don’t already have one, create a new bucket for your custom images by clicking “Create New”. These are the options I used:
Step 3: Upload Debian to Bucket
Now that you have a bucket created, we need to click on it to open it up. Once you are in your bucket, scroll down and choose “Upload” under objects.
Upload the Debian image from Step 1. You can name it whatever you like.
Step 4: Make Custom Image
With the Debian image uploaded, it is time to convert that to an Oracle Cloud Image. To do this Navigate to Compute -> Custom Images. Once there choose “Import Image”. This is an example of the import settings you should emulate:
This will take a few mins to provision.
Step 5: Deploy Custom Image
Now that our Custom Image has been provisioned, we can now create our custom image. Navigate to Compute -> Instances and choose “Create Instance”. On the “Create compute instance” page start off by creating a name for your Proxmox instance. I called mine “Proxmox”.
Then choose your Availability Domain
Then When it comes time to choose your Image make sure to choose “Custom Images” and pick the Debian one that we created. Next, choose your shape. You CAN run this on OCI’s “Always Free-eligible” Tier if you’d like.
(Important Note Here) If you would like to run this on Ampere, you can do this by using all the previous steps but using the Debian arm64 Image! Next, select all your networking settings. You can make a separate subnet for this Proxmox machine if you’d like but it’s not necessary.
Finally, make sure to download your SSH Keys. This is what will allow you to SSH into your machine once it’s up and running! Go ahead and Choose “Create” to start up your new Debian image. Wait for OCI to finish provisioning your machine and move on to step 6.
Step 6: Installing Proxmox
Using your instance’s public IP address and the key that you downloaded, SSH into your instance. On Windows I use MobaXterm, regular SSH on macOS or Linux is perfectly fine. From here we will run the required commands in order to prep and install Proxmox.
We Will start by making sure the OS is up-to-date
sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade
Now we begin to install Proxmox manually.
Most of this process can be found on Proxmox’s documentation site here! Make sure to visit that page if you have any issues.
Because this image is set up for a cloud environment, we need to edit the cloud.cfg first. We WILL NOT be adjusting the hosts file directly.
sudo nano /etc/cloud/cloud.cfg
Make sure to set
preserve_hostname to true.
1 preserve_hostname: true
Then below that line add:
1 hostname: proxmox
Now we need to edit the cloud master file found at
sudo nano /etc/cloud/templates/hosts.debian.tmpl
By default, my hosts file looked like this:
1 2 127.0.1.1 127.0.0.1 localhost
I changed it to look like this:
1 129.xx.xxx.xxx proxmox.mydomainname.com proxmox
Then once that is finished you will need to reboot your instance from the OCI dashboard.
Once the Reboot has finished, SSH back into your instance and verify the change has been made with this command:
Your output should look like this:
Now we need to add the Proxmox VE repo:
sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list.d/pve-install-repo.list
Then add this line:
1 deb [arch=amd64] http://download.proxmox.com/debian/pve bullseye pve-no-subscription
Add the Proxmox VE repository key as sudo:
sudo wget https://enterprise.proxmox.com/debian/proxmox-release-bullseye.gpg -O /etc/apt/trusted.gpg.d/proxmox-release-bullseye.gpg
Now update and upgrade your instance:
sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade
Next we need to install the Proxmox VE kernel:
sudo apt install pve-kernel-5.15
If apt asks if you would like to install the new version of grub, be sure to select “Keep the local version currently installed”. We will be manually updating grub later.
Once the Kernel has finished installing make sure to reboot the system using OCI dashboard.
Once the system has rebooted, SSH back into your instance and you can Install the Proxmox VE packages.
sudo apt install proxmox-ve postfix open-iscsi
After all the packages have been installed, it is time to remove the previous Debian Kernel and update Grub:
apt remove linux-image-amd64 'linux-image-5.10*'
Apt will warn you that removing your kernel is bad. Normally this is true, but the Proxmox packages we installed ship with its own Kernel and we will update Grub to use that one in the next step.
Update Grub manually to use the Kernal installed by Proxmox:
Verify that os-prober package is NOT installed:
sudo apt remove os-prober
Step 7: Configure Proxmox
To enable us to log into the Proxmox Web UI, we will need to set the root user password.
sudo passwd root
With the root password set, you can now log into your Proxmox Web UI:
The next time that your Proxmox instance reboots, it will apply some network changes that will break your ability for the machine to connect to the internet. There is a chance that this can break any time there is a Kernel update but it is unlikely. Following are the steps to fix this.
In the Proxmox Web UI, go to your machine’s network settings. You will notice it is asking you to create the VM Bridge network since it does not create that by default. We are going to create this network now!
Fill in the sections below to match the Virtual Bridge to you OCI dashboard. Pictured below are my settings:
Reboot the instance one more time using the OCI dashboard, NOT THE PROXMOX WEB UI, after these changes have been made. Once the reboot has finished, you will not be able to SSH to the instance OR access the WEB UI.
In the OCI Dashboard, select your Instance and open “Console connection”
Compute → Instances → Instance details → Console connection
Then click on “Launch Cloud Shell Connection”
It will take a few mins for the console to open, but once it does log in using the “root” user and the password you had created in Step 7.
Once logged in, get your interface names:
ip -br -c addr show
Make note of these.
For me I had 3:
vmbr0. You will notice that both
vmbr0 are reporting as down.
To fix this we will need to edit
And then adjust your file to match this using your network information:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 auto lo iface lo inet loopback auto ens3 iface ens3 inet manual auto vmbr0 iface vmbr0 inet static address 10.0.0.143/24 gateway 10.0.0.1 bridge-ports ens3 bridge-stp off bridge-fd 0 # source-directory /etc/network/interfaces.d # source-directory /run/network/interfaces.d
Once you have saved your changes we can now up the interfaces.
After you have upped your interfaces, your Proxmox install is complete and can now be accessed from the Proxmox Web UI and SSH once again. From here you can make any adjustmets to Proxmox from the web UI. Thanks so much for reading!
- Install Proxmox VE on Debian 11 Bullseye - https://pve.proxmox.com/wiki/Install_Proxmox_VE_on_Debian_11_Bullseye
- Root Password Reset - https://pve.proxmox.com/wiki/Root_Password_Reset
- Debian Cloud images: https://cloud.debian.org/images/cloud/bullseye/20221205-1220/
- Web UI Unreachable After Adding NVME Drive - https://forum.proxmox.com/threads/webui-unreachable-after-adding-nvme-drive.85500/
- Losing Network Connection after each Proxmox Reboot - https://forum.proxmox.com/threads/losing-network-connection-after-each-proxmox-reboot.108528/
Thanks for reading!
Written By: Max Kulik